My research interests cover the broad areas of Development, Macro and International Economics.
I have in the past worked on issues relating to balance of payments, economic integration, remittances, capital flows, labour market segmentation, financial sector development and firm-level innovation in developing countries. The latter theme focused on two sub-themes, namely, (a) the role of innovative practices at the firm level including the adoption of new management practices and how these relate to firm productivity, resilience and growth, and (b) big data analytics and the role of technology such as cloud-based systems.
Currently, my research focus is more policy-oriented and my interests cover:
building resilience and state capacities
financial sector evolution and reform
 Ali, S. I., Ali, A., Muhammed, M., & Christie, M. (2021). Optimal supply chain design with product family: A cloud-based framework with real-time data consideration, Computers & Operations Research, doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2020.105112 .
When the product family (PF) and the supply chain designs (SCD) are aligned and integrated, original equipment manufacturers (OEM) are more likely to improve their operational performance. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, which demonstrates how both the product and the supply chain can simultaneously be designed based on real-time data. At the heart of the proposed model is the utilisation of a cloud-based management system comprising of three steps. In the first step, a generic bill of materials is modelled to design a set of product families using “AND” and “OR” nodes. In the second step, a cloud-based framework is designed to manage real-time costs viz. echelons. In the third step, a mixed integer linear programming model is then applied, which optimizes the SCD based on real-time costs. We use a metaheuristic method based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) to solve the optimization problem. We further illustrate the model using power transformer numerical example. Then the critical parameters of GA are examined to determine the best settings. We believe that the proposed SCD is an intelligent and expert management system, which can facilitate effective decision-making support by taking into account real-time cost data. This is particularly important when there are uncertain and volatile market conditions.
 Ali, A., & Ali, S.I. (2020). Antecedents of the propensity to learn management practices and their impacts on firm outcomes in emerging markets: a Bayesian model averaging approach, International Business Review, 29 (4), 101706.
This article explores the factors that motivate firms to learn new management practices. The hypotheses are empirically tested using a representative sample of 3,676 small, medium and large firms from four South Asian countries and across all main sectors of economic activity. Given that we know little about the antecedents of the propensity to learn management practices in emerging markets, the study employs Bayesian Model Averaging approach to overcome the potential issue of model uncertainty. The results reveal that market competition, resource allocation towards internal and external R&D, good quality mobile network coverage and the use of external certified financial auditors have all positive and significant effects on the propensity to learn management practices. The results also suggest that private intellectual property rights protection in the context of inefficient legal systems can deter firms from learning, perhaps in fear of legal ramifications. Finally, the study shows that firms with a higher propensity of learning management practices are more likely to become profitable while exhibiting higher levels of both potential and actual innovation.
 Alpaslan, B., & Ali, A. (2018). The spillover effects of innovative ideas on human capital, Review of Development Economics, 22 (1), 333 – 360.
This paper extends a two‐period overlapping generations model of endogenous growth where the interactions between public infrastructure and human capital with research and development (R&D) activities and growth are studied. The paper makes two important contributions. First, it accounts for the spillover effect of the stock of ideas on learning, which in turn promotes the production of innovative technologies. In doing so, it brings to the fore a two‐way interaction between human capital and innovation. The paper then applies various econometric methods which confirm the above theoretical thesis. Second, the solutions of the model emphasize the important role public spending on infrastructure, human capital and R&D can play in promoting economic growth. However, the findings also show that trade‐offs in the allocation of public spending may inevitably emerge. In particular, investment in public infrastructure at the expense of spending on R&D is less likely to succeed in promoting economic growth, whereas it may be more effective to foster growth through an offsetting cut in another productive component, namely, education. In light of these potential trade‐offs, governments in low‐income countries need to use their limited budgets as part of holistic measures in order to achieve efficient outcomes.
 Ali, A., & Alpaslan, B. (2017). Is there an investment motive behind remittances? Evidence from panel cointegration, Journal of Developing Areas, 51 (1), 63-82.
This paper re-examines whether migrant remittances “crowd in” or “crowd out” domestic investment in developing countries. Using recently developed panel cointegration techniques that account for cross-sectional dependence, structural breaks and regime shifts, the paper shows that remittances form a long-run equilibrium relation with domestic investment. The results of the panel vector error correction model reveal the absence of a short-run relationship but the presence of a long-run bidirectional link between remittances and investment. Thus, remittances drive investment while investment itself causes more remittances, suggesting that remittances are not only driven by altruistic motives but also investment motives. An important policy implication emanating from this study is that developing countries should improve the effectiveness of remittance inflows given that these can augment the rate of capital accumulation.
 Ali, A., & Imai, K. S. (2015). Crisis, economic integration and growth collapses in African countries. Journal of African Economies, 24(4), 471-501. [Editor’s Choice]
The objective of this article is to explore the effects of crises and openness on a large sample of African countries. Focusing on sudden stops, currency, twin and sovereign debt crises, the article shows that crises are associated with growth collapses in Africa. In contrast, openness is found to be beneficial to growth. More specifically, consistent with standard Mundell–Fleming type models, greater openness to trade and financial flows is found to mitigate the adverse effects of crises. These findings are robust to various measures of both openness and crises as well as to endogeneity concerns.
 Imai, K. S., Gaiha, R., Ali, A., & Kaicker, N. (2014). Remittances, growth and poverty: New evidence from Asian countries. Journal of Policy Modeling, 36(3), 524-538. [Also published as an IFAD/UN policy report/occasional paper Nr. 15, 2012].
The present study re-examines the effects of remittances on growth of GDP per capita using annual panel data for 24 Asia and Pacific countries. The results generally confirm that remittance flows have been beneficial to economic growth. However, our analysis also shows that the volatility of capital inflows such as remittances and FDI is harmful to economic growth. This means that, while remittances contribute to better economic performance, they are also a source of output shocks. Finally, remittances contribute to poverty reduction – especially through their direct effects. Migration and remittances are thus potentially a valuable complement to broad-based development efforts.
 Ali, A. (2013). Are property rights institutions and financial development complements or substitutes? The case of private investment. Economics Bulletin, 33(2), 1126-1131.
This article explores whether the quality of the financial sector has an impact on the relationship between property rights institutions and private investment. Using dynamic panel techniques, we show that strong property rights promote increased private investment and that this positive effect is stronger in countries with poorer financial systems, suggesting that institutions and finance act as substitutes in their effect on investment.
 Ali, S. I., Habib, F., Ali, A., Ali, A., Khan, M. F., & Jamal, A. (2020). Integrating social media and warranty data for fault identification in the cyber ecosystem: A cloud-based collaborative framework. In H. Jahankhani, G. Bowen, L. O'Dell, D. Hagan, & A. Jamal (Eds.), Strategy, Leadership and Artificial Intelligence in the Cyber Ecosystem (1 ed.). Elsevier.
Fault identification during warranty is quite complex because of sophisticated product design and distributed manufacturing. Various supply chain facilities located at diverse geographical locations are usually utilised to manufacture a particular product. If a fault occurs in one component of a product, it may be linked with other components which are procured and manufactured by other segments of the globally distributed supply chain. Hence, in this multifaceted scenario, the information systems need to be integrated and responsive enough to respond proactively in sharing data from heterogeneous systems across the supply chain in the cyber ecosystem. To achieve this goal, in this chapter, we integrate warranty data from multiple datasets. Initially, social media dataset is used. Consumers increasingly engage in information sharing on weblogs, forums, Facebook, and Twitter, among others. This valuable information is mostly untapped by the automotive manufacturers. To explore the large amount of hidden fault-related data, we use data analytics. Then, we develop a cloud-based collaborative framework to manage the warranty data from other supply chain information systems, namely, design, manufacture and service. The framework provides integration and access of warranty data from multiple datasets of supply chain. The proposed autonomous smart agents’ interaction assists to establish real-time warranty data exchange across the supply chain. The combined data can then be used for detailed expert analysis by fault learning and rectification agent. The execution of the framework is demonstrated using an illustrative execution process. Our contributions are clearly detailed, and some important managerial insights are provided for warranty management in globally distributed supply chain.
 Ali, A., & Alpaslan, B. (2018). Pro-industry policies, sustainability and industrial growth, in M. Yulet (eds.) Industrial policy and sustainable growth, Springer Academic Publishers.
This study examines how pro-industry policies and environmental sustainability relate to industrial growth in countries with varying environmental records using a large panel dataset on 104 developing and developed countries over the period 2002–2012. Employing both the conditional and unconditional quantile regression estimators as well as the fixed effects panel estimator, the study finds that pro-industry policies in the form of improved legal and property rights, favorable trade, and business environments are associated with higher industrial growth and development. In line with the so-called Porter hypothesis, the findings indicate that a high environmental performance is indeed consistent with industrial development. In addition, the results show that pro-industry policies and environmental sustainability are substitutes rather than complements in their effect on industry. The study identifies some important policy measures which policy-makers could undertake to make the two complementary in their effect on industrial growth.
 Imai, K. S., Gaiha, R., Thapa, G., & Ali, A. (2012). Supply response to food price changes in Asian countries, in M. Aoki, T. Kuran and G. Roland (eds.) Institutions and Comparative Economic Development, Palgrave, Macmillan, New York.
Primary commodity prices have been increasing, especially since the early 2000s and at an accelerated pace during 2007–08, with implications for food security in the developing world. Against this backdrop, much recent research has focused on understanding the causes and consequences of food price increases. The objective of the present analysis is to examine how food commodity and input prices have affected the supply of the former in 10 Asian economies. This analysis assumes greater significance in the context of the recent surge in oil and food prices, and its persistence. If, for example, oil prices continue to rise — as feared on present evidence — the food price surge may also persist.
Journal Papers in Review
 Ali, A., Ali, S, & Choudhury, H. (2020). New evidence on the determinants of actual and potential innovation in developing countries.
 Nimoh, N. C., Ali, A., & Syme, T. (2020). Earnings gaps, Segmentation and Competitiveness in the Ghanaian Labour Market.
 Ali, SI., & Ali, A. (2019). Integrating Social media and warranty data for fault identification in automobile sector. Production and Operations Management Society International Conference: Connecting the Operations Management & Supply Chain Management World in Divided Times, Brighton, UK. 2 - 4 September 2019.
 Ali, SI., Christie, M., & Ali, A. (2016). Cloud-based product life cycle management framework for fault identification in distributed manufacturing. In: International Conference on Business, Economics, Management and Marketing (ICBEMM) 2016, Oxford University, 15-17 Aug 2016.
 Ali, A., & Walters, B. (2011). On the causes of capital flight from Sub-Saharan Africa. CSAE Oxford University Conference Paper No. 679 [voted as one of the top contributions]
 Ali, A. (2011). Institutional quality, financial development and capital flight. The Sixteenth World Congress of International Economic Association, Beijing, China.